form and transfer of meaning. The former type comprises mainly complete language switches and the use of deceptive cognates, which may be partially or totally deceptive. The latter refers to other instances of lexical transfer like calques and semantic extension on the basis of patterns in other languages (Ringbom, 2001). So, as we can see in Ringbom’s classification, deceptive cognate words are broadly classified into partial and total without further detail. Furthermore, this classification defines false friends, or deceptive cognates, as form-based transfer instead of as meaning-based transfer as suggested in Pinazo (1997).
Persian works, however, are few. Nourai (1998) believed Indo-European was not a written language. However, about two thousand of its root words have been reconstructed by comparing words of similar sound and meaning among its derived languages. As the Indo-European people started to migrate, their language split into many different dialects that stemmed from the phonetic habits or references of different tribes. The key to the science of comparative linguistics and etymology, is the fact that these sound changes followed a rather systematic pattern that is used to determine relationships among dissimilar words in different languages as an example for obtaining a sense of how the word roots were discovered, consider the “P” sound at the beginning of Indo- European words that is preserved in Persian and Greek, but is changed to “F” in Germanic. Therefore, the Indo-European word “Pa-ter: protector” became “Pedar: father: f¨à” in Persian but changed to “Father” in English (through Germanic). The rules and known patterns of sound changes are used to trace words back to their origins. It should also be noted that the patterns of many sound and word changes are not fully understood yet, therefore, there is some uncertainty about the correct roots of some words.
The primary objective of this study is to emphasize the function of cognate words in developinglexical knowledge in an EFL setting. Cognate words can facilitate the foreign language learning process; they have similar meanings and, therefore they can support the acquisition and/or learning of a non-native language. On the other hand, for a student in EFL learning English vocabularies takes a lot time, so the writer hopes that by using cognate words in learning European languages facilitates the most. Once this framework for the classification of cognate words has been developed, the next step which is beyond the aims of this paper– would be to classify most frequent cognate words (English-Persian)
A cognate course of 5 successive sessions will be held for the participants in the two experimental group and a control group, of 40 students each arrived at convenience sampling, both groups will select from ……….English language institution in……….. The participants were both male and female upper-intermediate students whose varied from 15 to 21. The experimental group was received the treatment (teaching English-Persian cognate words) while control group was received the regular form of English words. The manner of teaching words was the same for the two groups except that for the experimental group the historical background of those words had been mentioned. The teacher as well as the method of teaching did not change in both groups.
A vocabulary test will be administered to both groups as pretest to check their homogeneity in terms of their knowledge of Lexical development. Prior to the training, teacher will explain about the concept of cognate words and historical backgrounds of English-Persian words for the students of experimental group with an emphasis on English-Persian cognate words. These cognates can be found and searched through two main ways; one is the borrowing words, which entered into Persian or vice versa, and the next group of cognates are in fact the historically related words between the two languages.
The method of gathering data was via field work and library research mainly from Webster’s English dictionary. Gathering Persian cognate words in English is a long and difficult process. This is because you cannot find any prepared and at-hand list of these words. Gathering such a list needs a high proficiency level of mastering to Avestaean language (the older form of Persian language) and also, knowing about roots (base form of words) and word-formation in English.
3.5. Methods of Analyzing Data
After homogenizing the students through Pre-test, they have 5 sessions of treatment, learning those 52 cognate words, in English language. The list of cognates has been attached at the appendices. The subjects of the study in both groups (experimental and control groups) will take the same vocabulary test as posttest. ANCOVA has been done to let the researcher know whether their knowledge of Lexical development as improved or not.
Cognate words have shown easier and faster processing than noncognates in isolated word recognition tasks such as lexical decision (Dijkstra, Grainger, &Heuven, 1999: Lemhomhofer&Dijkstra, 2004; Lemhofer, Dijkstra, &Michel, 2004).the researcher was tried to prove that these true cognates bring about undeniable help in the development of some linguistic abilities in learners with specific linguistic backgrounds.
تحقیقات گذشته نشان داده اند که تلاش های بازاریابی می تواند به طور کارآمدتری در سرتاسر کانال ها تخصیص یابد،با این وجود دانش ما در مورد این مسئله محدود است (نسلاین و شنکر 4،2006).در مورد بیشتر بخوانید...